Knee Surgery

Anatomy of the Knee

The knee is one of the largest and most complex joints in the body.

Tendons connect the knee bones to the leg muscles that move the knee joint. Ligaments join the knee bones and provide stability to the knee.

The anterior cruciate ligament prevents the femur from sliding backward on the tibia (or the tibia sliding forward on the femur).

The posterior cruciate ligament prevents the femur from sliding forward on the tibia (or the tibia from sliding backward on the femur).

The medial and lateral collateral ligaments prevent the femur from sliding side to side.

Knee Osteoarthritis

Arthritis is inflammation of one or more of your joints. Pain, swelling, and stiffness are the primary symptoms of arthritis. Any joint in the body may be affected by the disease, but it is particularly common in the knee.

Knee arthritis can make it hard to do many everyday activities, such as walking or climbing stairs. It is a major cause of lost work time and a serious disability for many people.

The most common types of arthritis are osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, but there are more than 100 different forms. While arthritis is mainly an adult disease, some forms affect children.

Although there is no cure for arthritis, there are many treatment options available to help manage pain and keep people staying active.

Knee conditions

Listed below are some common knee conditions

Chondromalacia Patella

(also called patellofemoral syndrome)

Irritation of the cartilage on the underside of the kneecap (patella), causing knee pain. This is a common cause of knee pain in young people.

Find out more about Sports Medicine

Knee Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis and often affects the knees. Caused by ageing and wear and tear of cartilage, osteoarthritis symptoms may include knee pain, stiffness, and swelling.

More detailed informatjion is included further up this page.

Meniscal Tear

Damage to a meniscus, the cartilage that cushions the knee, often occurs with twisting the knee. Large tears may cause the knee to lock.

Read more here

ACL Strain or Tear

(Anterior Cruciate Ligament)

The Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) is responsible for a large part of the knee’s stability. An ACL tear often leads to the knee “giving out,” and may require surgical repair.

Read more here

MCL Strain or Tear

(Medial Collateral Ligament)

An injury to the Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) may cause pain and possible instability to the inner side of the knee.

Find out more here

Patellar Subluxation

The kneecap slides abnormally or dislocates along the thigh bone during activity. Knee pain around the kneecap results.

Find out more here.


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